Cultures and civilisations rise and fall in a cyclical nature. Over time, many civilisations have conquered and then collapsed. Sociologists, anthropologists and religious advocates have preached this for centuries. Historian Ibn Khaldun was a key figure in the proposal of the theory, suggesting that empires will rise and fall via eight stages. These range from bondage and spiritual growth, to courage, to liberty, to abundance, to complacency, to apathy, to dependence, back to bondage. The major theme of the theories of rise and fall in societies is the Church and the biblical culture, which remain constant, although often in need of reform.
By Lewis Steele
“Before I signed for Betis, I asked them ‘Why do you want me?’ You’ve seen how my teams play, how I play. Are you clear this is what you want? Do you agree with this or not, because be clear that I am not going to score. If not, you better get another manager.’”